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The Environmental Impact of Current Patterns of Rural Development: A Global Perspective

By Roberta Fortugno


Earth's water resources, particularly its limited freshwater supply, play a critical role in sustaining various human needs such as drinking water, agriculture, energy generation, and more. Unfortunately, current patterns of rural development have placed immense pressure on these resources, leading to a concerning depletion.



Over the last century, there has been an unprecedented sixfold surge in global freshwater consumption, outpacing population growth twofold. BRICS countries — Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa — contribute 45% of global freshwater use, while OECD countries plateaued at 20–25% since the 1980s. Agriculture remains the largest consumer, accounting for 70% of freshwater withdrawals globally, with variations based on country income levels.


Irrigation has been pivotal for enhancing agricultural productivity, particularly in South and East Asia and the Middle East. However, intensive groundwater pumping for irrigation has led to aquifer depletion, causing environmental degradation and economic repercussions. Countries like India, Iran, and Saudi Arabia face water stress, exceeding withdrawal rates, impacting agriculture, manufacturing, and energy generation.


Water scarcity affects over four billion people cyclically. Climate change intensifies these challenges, altering water availability patterns and contributing to drought-induced population movements from rural to urban areas. Historical examples, such as the Dust Bowl in the 1930s and Sahelian droughts, underscore the profound impact on population distribution.


Large-scale irrigation diminishes freshwater flow to seas, affecting marine life. Iconic rivers like the Colorado, Murray-Darling, and Huang He no longer reach the sea. The Aral Sea exemplifies the consequences of river interception, causing salinity rise, toxicity, and biodiversity loss. Wetlands, vital for filtering pollutants and storing freshwater, face a 54% loss globally. Water pollution, largely driven by agriculture, poses threats to ecosystems and human health. Excessive fertilizer use contributes to eutrophication, creating "dead zones" in water bodies. Plastic mulching aggravates this pollution, with significant environmental and health implications.


Current agricultural practices contribute significantly to biodiversity loss, accelerated by urbanization and climate change. The failure to achieve Aichi biodiversity targets highlights the urgency of conservation efforts. Land degradation, driven by unsustainable agricultural practices, threatens species extinction and hampers agricultural productivity.


Industries, particularly brick kilns and cement manufacturing, contribute to air pollution, affecting rural areas. Agricultural practices, waste management challenges, and the indiscriminate use of pesticides further escalate pollution, negatively impacting air quality and soil health.


The environmental impact of current rural development patterns is multifaceted, affecting water resources, biodiversity, soil health, and air quality. Urgent measures are required to mitigate these impacts, emphasizing sustainable agricultural practices, responsible water use, and conservation efforts to ensure the resilience of rural ecosystems. Recognizing the interconnectedness of these environmental challenges is crucial for shaping effective policies and practices that prioritize the long-term health of our planet.


OCCAM advocates for sustainable agricultural practices, responsible water management, and holistic policies that address the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of the ongoing crisis.



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